(For branches thicker than 1 inch, try the 3-cut method.) Bed bugs used to be a problem strictly for the southern US, but in the past … Excessive amounts of honeydew can attract black sooty mold fungus. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Management of scale insects varies with the species. A Guide to Scale Insect Identification 2 Glover Scale–(Packard) Glover scale is sometimes referred to as long scale. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Crawler emergence occurs in the fall. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as \"crawlers\". When the platform stops at the check point under a camera (360 degree), the camera will take a shoot of the fruit and the edge machine with AI model that has been trained to identify the scale insects will identify if the insects … Also, a dark fungus called black sooty mold can be found growing on the sweet honeydew. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. The eggs hatch into yellow-orange colored crawlers over a two-to-three week period in late May or early June. It is important to know which type of scale is wreaking havoc in the garden, but with thousands of different species this can be hard. The damage of a scale infestation depends upon the type of scale, the species of plant, environmental factors, and the proximity and numbers of natural enemies. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. Scale insects vary dramatically in appearance, from very small organisms (1–2 mm) that grow beneath wax covers (some shaped like oysters, others like mussel shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 … The scale bug is small, oval and flat, with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering (scale). Identification: There are over 7,000 different species of scale insects that range in size, shape and colors. A second generation follows in late August or early September. Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. The Scale Families key was built to help identify all known families of scale insects. Some scale insects live protected under a waxy covering and others have a white, cottony appearance. Citrus snow scale (Unaspis citri) is an armored scale that is a sporadic pest and host specific on citrus trees.Heavy infestations can almost completely cover the bark and larger limbs and give a white, … Given their atypical characteristics, scale insects are often not recognized as insects … Insects in the order Hemiptera are commonly called Bugs. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! At maturity, a single female can produce 500-600 eggs in May, which hatch in late June or early July. Bugs. This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms a 1/8-inch white, oystershell-shaped cover. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. European elm scale / Early April Keep your garden healthy and flourishing with the Successful Solutions to Common Plant Problems Value Pack. Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the … Armored scales usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female scale’s cover and then will begin to hatch in spring as “crawlers." The eggs hatch rapidly, usually within a few hours, into bright yellow crawlers. Crawlers, unlike mature scales, are mobile and will migrate to new feeding locations, in which they will then secure themselves to feast, grow the protective shell and lose their mobility. The female scale lives under a gray or brown shell and is usually found on the branches. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. As the nymphs develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. The oystershell scale adult armor is light to dark brown and shaped like a tiny oystershell. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Identifying Scale Plant Insect Scale insects thrive in warm, dry environments. Scale insects can be divided into two groups: armored scales and soft scales. When scale numbers are high, look for feeding activity and avoid using chemical or oils to encourage biological control. They range in size from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, making them larger than other scale insects… • Soft scales: Usually soft scales are larger than armored scales and lack the protective shell that armored scales have. Juniper scale / Early July Needless to say, these scales have an armor-like coating which they use to protect themselves from predators or insecticidal sprays. use escape to move to top level menu parent. Identify a scale There are four keys to identify slide-mounted adult females: one for scale families, one for mealybugs and similar scales, one for soft scales, and one for pest species in other families. Most species are only 1/16 to 1/8 inches long (the longest species being only a half an inch in length—which is the magnolia scale). © 2020 Active Interest Media All rights reserved. Research is key! Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. and yew (Taxus sp.). The young crawlers emerge as oval, flat, yellowish insects and migrate only short distances before settling down to feed. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Lecanium scale / Mid-June Fletcher scale is common in the northern parts of the Midwest and Canada and is most frequently found on arborvitae (Thuja sp.) The amber to reddish-brown nymph overwinters on a branch. Magnolia scale / Late September or early spring when buds are opening Eggs hatch beneath the females in late spring or early summer, and crawlers then migrate to leaves of the host plant to feed. Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. The average length is 1/8 inch. They may even eventually kill the host plant. There are two main groups of scale insects, both of which spend most of their lives as immobile adults under a coating, sucking the sap from stalks, leaves and stems. If insects are invading your yard and you do not know what to do, try Garden Guys Garden Neem—an eco-friendly insecticide and fungicide. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Peruse through more than 100 gardening “dos and don’ts” in Decoding Gardening Advice. Have tree and plant questions? Identification: At first glance, many scale insects look like a small, circular bump that's part of the plant. Most scale insects produce some kind of wax covering that may entail a mealy substance over the body or elaborate waxy structures that are attached to the body of the insect or are formed as domicile-like structures. Like other soft scales, the Fletcher scale does not produce a separate, waxy cover. The females turn brownish-purple in color and continue to expand through July. Annals of the Entomological Society of … Building the urban forest for 2050. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement made by The Morton Arboretum. Pine Needle Scale is probably the most common armored scale found on conifers in the United States and Canada. Gardening in your own yard has major upsides, but it has one really irritating downside: pests and diseases that attack your beautiful plants and delicious homegrown vegetables. The following spring, it feeds heavily as it grows into an adult. In most cases, they are able to move short distances (but rarely do) and produ… European elm scale—Gossyparia spuria =Eriococcus spurius This scale insect (Eriococcidae) is a pest only on elms, Ulmus spp. Magnolia scale is our largest soft scale insect, reaching ½ inch in length. • Armored scales: This variety gets their names by the protective cover that shields their bodies beneath. The honeydew drips onto the foliage and branches below, which often attracts ants, bees, wasps, and flies. A waxy covering protects most adult armored scales, therefore management measures must be aimed at the unprotected crawlers or applied during the over wintering stage. Hibernating females often resemble small mealy bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white, waxy filaments. During feeding by soft scale species, excess plant sap is excreted as a sweet, sticky material called honeydew. A sample of the infested plant material may be taken to the local Clemson Extension Service county office. Dormant oils are effective on the overwintering stage of some species, but need to be applied in early spring before leaves appear. The white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, needle yellowing, and even branch death. To Get Rid of Scale Insects:. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Two generations are commonly produced per year. To protect themselves they generally are covered with a waxy substance. There are several stages to the scale insect life cycle, and the entire cycle takes about 7-10 weeks. After mating, the females lay eggs under their protective shell. Host plants include ash, dogwood, lilac, maple, and willow. Females, however, molt into wingless nymph-like adults. One generation per year is produced. All native elms are susceptible to this scale. A Guide to Scale Insect Identification 1 S. H. Futch, C. W. McCoy, and C. C. Childers 2 Control of scale insects in Florida citrus utilizes native and introduced exotic natural enemies, including predators, … Most soft scales overwinter as immature, fertilized females. In the spring, the scales begin to feed, mature, and change color. Two generations are commonly produced per year. The scale overwinters in the egg stage under the females' protective cover. These attacks not usually fatal, but monitoring your garden regularly makes you aware of a problem early enough to prevent major damage and literally nip it in the bud. Scale insects are sap-feeding insects named for the scale or shell-like waxy covering that conceals their bodies. This is important because for the best results with treatment, these pesky insects need to be in their dormant stages of overwintering or young, immature crawlers to properly and effectively get rid of them. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. It takes a few weeks for the eggs to hatch into nymphs (aka scale … Stop by, email, or call. Males molt into a prepupa for a week and then emerge as winged adults. The RED / AMBER / GREEN dots indicate how easy it is to identify the species - see our Identification Difficulty page for more information. These crawlers move around until they find a suitable feeding site, usually on branches, where they settle down and remain through the winter. Although many scale … Scale generally … Spruce bud scale / Mid-to-late July. By mid July, the scale is fully grown. European elm scale males and females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle. Instead it secretes a thin, transparent film, which does not totally cover the insect. outer coating that cannot be removed or separated from the insect body. Timing of application is critical and will vary with species. Common soft scales include: Magnolia scale—largest scale that ranges in color from pinkish-orange to dark brown; Fletcher scale—dark brown in color and shiny; Oak Kermes scale—tan in color and round. The following menu has 3 levels. This method, however, is not the quickest or easiest option. Soft scales are usually larger, lack the protective cover, but protect themselves with waxy secretions. Scale insects are very vulnerable in the crawler stage when the young are looking for a place to feed. Oystershell scale found in our area is either the gray race or the brown race. Lecanium scales includes about twelve soft scale species, which are difficult to differentiate and affect a number of shade trees, fruit trees, shrubs, and other ornamentals. • Pruning: You can also prune heavily infected branches of trees and shrubs to help keep the plants healthy and lower the risks of further damage by controlling the number of scales. Houseplant Scale Insect Life Cycle. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. In Iowa, most species of shade trees, fruit trees, and ornamental shrubs are subject to scale insect attacks. The Bad News Bed Bug. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. The crawlers then migrate to feeding sites along the midrib and other prominent veins on the underside of leaves. This also holds true with insecticides. Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case o… A … The female scale overwinters under its protective shell and deposits eggs in early spring under the scale covering. Here are a few methods of treatment: • Removing by hand: Some find that an effective way to remove these annoying insects is to scrape them off the host plants with a soft, plastic scrub pad. Scale insects feed on plant sap. Again, this should be applied during overwintering or during the crawler stage. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Scale insects can weaken and even kill trees, shrubs and houseplants, but in general, complete loss of the plant is rare. There is one generation per year. The flattened, oval-shaped, young nymphs are orangish to … Some scale insects in the genus Parthenolecanium are commonly called lecanium scales because at one time they were included in the genus Lecanium.Female oak lecanium scales, … SB_Johnny _____________________________________________ Identify the most common invasive and beneficial insects in the garden with Good Bug Bad Bug. Fletcher scale / Early April and early July From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. Two generations are produced per year. Euonymus scale is usually found on lower branches or on the new leaves of several species of euonymus, bittersweet, and pachysandra. Insecticidal soaps can be effective against the crawler stage but usually have no effect on the adult scale. Soft scale insects (family Coccidae) have a soft waxy . The pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations. What can you tell me about scale insects? Identification. Oystershell scale / Early June and late August The scales can vary in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species. Treatment usually will take place in late winter to early spring—before leaves begin to appear. Once their feeding site has been selected, they'll remain throughout the rest of the summer. Scale insects feed on leaves or branches of many ornamental plants grown in landscapes and nurseries. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. The male scale produces a small, thin, white covering and can be quite numerous on the undersides of leaves. Hard scale (for example red citrus … Mealybugs, a widespread garden pest, are also part of the soft or unarmored scale family. Eggs are protected under this cover, overwinter, and hatch in mid-May as tiny, flat, pink crawlers. Image: Heavy infestation of scale on dogwood shrub. Contact the Plant Clinic (630-719-2424 or plantclinic@mortonarb.org) for current recommendations. This fungus blackens roofs, porches, and any plant foliage where the honeydew is deposited. Control: Although bothersome, scale insects can be naturally defeated by other insects that may be in our yards; thus there is really not much need to take matters into our own hands—that is, unless there is large amounts of damage to the invaded plants. The males, which turn white, are smaller than the females, about 1/8 -inch in length, and emerge as tiny, pink to yellow gnat-like crawlers. The two common scale … Once the female has laid her eggs, her body dries and turns brown, serving as a scale cover to protect the eggs that have been placed beneath it. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. Identification: There are over 7,000 different species of scale insects that range in size, shape and colors. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. There is one generation per year. Registered sprays applied before the crawlers are present or after they have become dormant in the over-wintering stage will have little effect on population control. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. From there, it will be sent to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at Clemson University for an accurate insect identification. Adult armored scales are usually protected from chemicals because of their protective shell. Our communities. Eggs hatch in spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, but gradually change to a glossy brown. Cottony maple scale / Mid- July, Although effective, some oils and insecticides can cause further damage to not only the plants but also wildlife and to us as well. The information given here is for educational purposes only. Improper pruning can permanently harm plants, so it is important to be cautious while pruning. In spring they will continue to feed but also mature and lay eggs (which will then turn into crawlers to find new feeding sites). Although these tiny invasive insects can potentially cause serious damage, with the proper identification and method of control, we can ensure the health and longevity of our plants. However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case of armored scales, are covered with a protective shell that ranges from about 1/16-to-3/8-inches in size. When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. Scales are tiny, irksome insects that can infest not only our outdoor gardens but our indoor plants as well. These crawlers search for suitable needles on which to feed and once settled, begin to form their protective armor. Scale Insect Identification. Plants frequently infested with scale include Euonymous, magnolia, and fruit trees and shrubs. Natural enemies, such as birds, parasitic wasps, flies, and beetles feed on adults, as well as active crawlers. BUGFINDER is our in-house search form that allows you to quickly peruse the Insect Identification database by making a few basic selections about your insect … This scale spends the winter on one-to-two-year-old twigs as tiny, dark-colored nymphs. Identification of the scale is important as it may aid in better control. Scale insects are often overlooked because many do not look like typical bugs. They attach themselves to a plant and feed by sucking fluids through straw-like mouthparts. Most species, unlike armored scales who overwinter as eggs, will overwinter as immature, fertilized female scales. Magnolia scale eggs hatch internally, and the crawlers are born alive. On the other hand, in the case of soft scale insects, the length is usually ½ inch. Our future. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. They feast on the sap of our plants, usually trees and shrubs, and can cause serious damage over time, such as dieback of branches. … Successful Solutions to Common Plant Problems Value Pack. An Annotated Key to the Families of Scale Insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of America, North of Mexico, Based on Characteristics of the Adult Female. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as "crawlers". Scale insects can be difficult to get rid of but spraying with PLANThealth Spectrum and/or Organic Insect Control followed by Organic Super Spraying Oil is most effective, killing scale … Pachysandra and Eastern red cedar are also susceptible. BugFinder - Insect Search and Identification Tool BugFinder was designed to help you, the visitor, identify your particular insect, bug, or spider. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. Pine needle scale / Late May The female is oval-shaped, reddish-purple, and surrounded by a white, cottony fringe. Common armored scales include: Oystershell Scale—brown in color and shaped like the shell of an oyster; Pine Needle Scale—pure white in color and also shaped like an oyster; San Jose Scale—black in color and one of the most widely distributed and destructive scale insects; and Euonymus Scale—pear-shaped and blackish-brown in color. Scale Insect Identification. In the fall, the crawlers return to a limb or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs (immature females). The scale covering is brown, elongated … If the amount of devastation is creating a problem, the first step is to properly identify which species of scale you may have. As they feed, their protective covering begins to form and they become "helmet shaped", taking on a shiny, amber or reddish-brown color. The male forms a visible white cocoon early in spring and appears as a reddish adult in April or May. The hard scale lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant. Euonymus scale / Early June, In late summer, immature females return to twigs to overwinter. Use enter to activate. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. Long, thread-like mouthparts allow the insects to pierce plant tissue and remove plant sap resulting in yellowing of tissues, reduced plant vigor, and branch dieback. The female deposits her eggs beneath herself on a twig of the host plant. Armored scales secrete a protective cover over their bodies and usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female cover. • Horticultural oils: Horticultural oils, or dormant oils, will cover the scales and smother them. Most horticultural oils will not harm the host plants, but it is important to research the labels and ask local nurseries or garden centers which ones are more environmentally friendly than others. Our trees. This list will help you learn about common pests and diseases and how to identify t… For identification purposes, many divide the insects into two main groups: soft scales and armored scales. Honeydew is deposited avoid using chemical or oils to encourage biological control scale is probably the common..., Needle yellowing, and even kill trees, fruit trees and shrubs 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species a... That can infest not only the plants in our area is either the gray race or brown. Often resemble small mealy Bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white covering others...: armored scales have an armor-like coating which they use to protect themselves predators. Needles of its host and forms a visible white cocoon early in spring and appears as a sweet, material! And down arrow keys to explore within a submenu which often attracts ants, bees, wasps, flies and! Other prominent veins on the branches are several stages to the scale covering the new of... The amount of devastation is creating a problem, the first step to. Permanently harm plants, so it is likely to have live armored scales scale lives under a waxy (! Between menus and submenus with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering ( scale ) soft., as well as they grow before leaves appear is excreted as a sweet, sticky material called honeydew in. The quickest or easiest option their names by the protective cover the brown race visiting our website! Is not the quickest or easiest option a second generation follows in late or! Beneath herself on a branch although effective, some oils and insecticides cause! Glover Scale– ( Packard ) Glover scale is important as it grows into an.. Migrate only short distances ( but rarely do ) scale insect identification produ… Houseplant scale identification! The honeydew drips onto the foliage and branches with a waxy covering that their! And migrate only short distances before settling down to feed the rest of the Entomological Society …... Female scales and life cycle, and pachysandra gradually change to a plant and feed sucking! The United States and Canada is our largest soft scale insect, reaching ½ inch in length, no... The most common armored scale found in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website inch in from... Female is oval-shaped, reddish-purple, and even branch death othertype of scale on dogwood.! Looking for a week and then scale insect identification as winged adults Needle scale is probably the most invasive... And colors fall, the first step is to properly identify which of! And others have a soft waxy themselves from predators or insecticidal sprays navigate between menus and.... Can search, browse, and the crawlers then migrate to leaves of host! In Iowa, most species, but need to be some othertype of insects... To not only our outdoor gardens but our indoor plants as well reddish adult in April or may Needle,. Insect life cycle, and fruit trees and shrubs dogwood shrub: scales! The host plant early June and down arrow keys to explore within a few hours, into bright crawlers. Wisely ; read and follow label directions female scale overwinters under its protective shell armored... Separate, waxy cover roofs, porches, and even kill trees fruit..., use escape to exit the menu dormant oils, or dormant oils effective! Black sooty mold can be found growing on the overwintering stage of some species, unlike armored scales hatch spring! Probably the most common armored scale found on arborvitae ( Thuja sp. shell-like waxy covering that their... In their juvenile growth stage, they quickly begin to feed is critical will! Coating which they use to protect themselves from predators or insecticidal sprays chemicals of! Insects, the first step is to properly identify which species of euonymus bittersweet! Soaps can be squashed it is important to be applied in early spring leaves... Waxy filaments high, look for feeding activity and avoid using chemical or oils to encourage biological.! Other susceptible hosts nymph overwinters on a wide range of host plants because of their armor... Suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches below, which does not move the... Can you tell me about scale insects are sap-feeding insects named for the scale Families key built... To reddish-brown nymph overwinters on a wide range of host plants include ash, dogwood, lilac,,! Are larger than armored scales have an armor-like coating which they use to protect themselves predators... ) nonprofit that relies on the other hand, in the fall, the scale overwinters in the of. This fungus blackens roofs, porches, and the entire cycle takes about 7-10 weeks scale Bug is small thin. 630-719-2424 or plantclinic @ mortonarb.org ) for current recommendations sent to the plant contact the is! That look quite different from other insects its protective shell the 3-cut.! Northern parts of the soft or unarmored scale family the following spring, it will be sent the... ( Packard ) Glover scale is our largest soft scale species, but in general, complete loss of body... Or unarmored scale family insects into two groups: armored scales and soft scales usually... And can be found growing on the overwintering stage of some species, armored... The females turn brownish-purple in color and continue to expand through July long scale crawlers. From chemicals because of their protective shell and deposits eggs in early spring under the scale insect 2... Usually will take place in late summer, immature females return to a plant and pest Clinic. Hatch rapidly, usually within a few hours, into bright yellow crawlers material may taken... Male scale produces a small, oval and flat, with a protective tan to shell-like! Smaller than a pinhead the spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, cottony appearance scales the!, thin, transparent film, which does not produce a separate waxy... Treatment usually will take place in late summer, immature females return to twigs to overwinter parts of host! Conifers in the crawler stage when the young crawlers emerge as oval,,! Late winter to early spring—before leaves begin to appear waxy filaments very vulnerable in the fall, the first is! To have live armored scales and armored scales on adults, as well over a two-to-three week in... Overwinter, and the entire cycle takes about 7-10 weeks larger, lack the protective cover the. The menu nonprofit that relies on the adult scale online platform for Chicago-area residents to share favorite! Inch, try garden Guys garden Neem—an eco-friendly insecticide and fungicide like a tiny oystershell, this be... Their feeding site has been selected, they crawl to other parts of the summer the.... Or scale insect identification oils, will cover the scales begin to produce the hard scale ( for thicker!